Global Warming Effects and Causes: A Top 10 List 1.
Human impact on the natural environment Natural environment is of crucial importance for social and economic life. We use the living world as a resource for food supply an energy source a major source of medicines natural resources for industrial products In this respect the diversity of nature not only offers man a vast power of choice for his current needs and desires.
It also enhances the role of nature as a source of solutions for the future needs and challenges of mankind. State of ecosystems, habitats and species In the past, human interaction with nature, although often having a disruptive effect on nature, often also enriched the quality and variety of the living world and its habitats - e.
Today, however, human pressure on natural environments is greater than before in terms of magnitude and efficiency in disrupting nature and natural landscapes, most notably: The clearest manifestations of the degradation of the natural environment are: Reduction and fragmentation of habitats and landscapes The expansion of humans activities into the natural environment, manifested by urbanisation, recreation, industrialisation, and agriculture, results in increasing uniformity in landscapes and consequential reduction, disappearance, fragmentation or isolation of habitats and landscapes.
It is evident that the increasing exploitation of land for human use greatly reduces the area of each wildlife habitat as well as the total area surface throughout Europe.
A decreased species diversity, due to reduced habitable surface area which corresponds to a reduced "species carrying capacity". The reduction of the size of habitats also reduces the genetic diversity of the species living there. Smaller habitats can only accommodate smaller populations, this results in an impoverished gene pool.
The reduction of genetic resources of a species diminishes its flexibility and evolutionary adaptability to changing situations. This has significant negative impacts on its survival.
The conditions under which the reduction of habitats often occur prevent living organisms making use of their normal ways to flee their threatened habitat. Those escape routes include migration to other habitats, adaption to the changing environment, or genetic interchange with populations in nearby habitats.
Of particular concern is: The abrupt nature of human intervention; human projects are planned and implemented on a much shorter time scale than natural processes; Furthermore human intervention, such as the construction of buildings, motorways or railways results in the fragmentation of habitats, which strongly limits the possibility for contact or migration among them; In extreme cases even the smallest, narrowest connections between habitats are broken off.
Such isolation is catastrophic for life in the habitat fragments. Threats are directly linked to the loss of habitats due to destruction, modification and fragmentation of ecosystems as well as from overuse of pesticides and herbicides, intensive farming methods, hunting and general human disturbance.
Since agriculture traditionally depends on sound environmental conditions, farmers have a special interest in the maintenance of natural resources and for centuries maintained a mosaic of landscapes which protected and enriched the natural environment.
As a result of needs for food production since the s, policies have encouraged increased pro- duction through a variety of mechanisms, including price support, other subsidies and support for research and development.
The success achieved in agricultural production has however entailed increased impact on the environment. Modern agriculture is responsible for the loss of much wildlife and their habitats in Europe, through reduction and fragmentation of habitats and wildlife populations.
The drainage of wetlands, the destruction of hedgerows and the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides can all pose a threat to wildlife. Highly specialised monoculture are causing significant loss in species abundance and diversity.
On the other hand increased production per hectare in intensive areas, raising of livestock volume, and lower prices for agricultural products also caused marginalization of agricultural land, changing the diversity of European landscapes into the direction of two main types: Intensive Agriculture and Abandoned land.
Energy Abandonment can be positive for nature, but this is not necessarily so. Land abandonment increases the risk of fire in the Mediterranean Region, causes a decline of small-scale landscape diversity and can also cause decrease in species diversity.
All energy types have potential impacts on the natural environment to varying degrees at all stages of use, from extraction through processing to end use. Generating energy from any source involves making the choices between impacts and how far those impacts can be tolerated at the local and global scale.
This is especially of importance for nuclear power, where there are significant risks of radioactive pollution such as at Chernobyl. Other oil companies are aware of this and use these environmental regula- tions voluntarily for developing oil fields.
Into the future the sustainability of the natural environment will be improved as trends away from damaging energy uses and extractive methods reduce and whilst real cost market forces and the polluter pays principle take effect. Fisheries The principle of the fisheries sector is towards sustainable catches of wild aquatic fauna.
The principle environmental impact associated with fisheries activities is the unsustainable har- vesting of fish stocks and shellfish and has consequences for the ecological balance of the aquatic environment. The sector is in a state of "crisis", with over capacity of the fleet, overexploitation of stocks, debt, and marketing problems.
Fishing activities have an impact on cetaceans and there is concern that large numbers of dolphins, and even the globally endangered Monk seal, are being killed. In many areas monocultures have replaced the original diverse forest composition.
Monocultures are extremely sensitive to insect infestations, fires or wind, and so can lead to financial losses as well as biological decline. The inadequate afforestation practices characterize new trends in impacting on the sustainability of the natural environment.
Industry Almost all forms of industry have an impact on the natural environment and its sustainability.This case study is part of a collection of pages developed by students in the introductory-level Geology and Human Health course in the Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University.
Learn more about this project. Hydrofracking is a controversial oil and gas extraction technique. The preamble of the Earth Charter provides, To move forward we must recognize that in the midst of a magnificent diversity of cultures and life forms we are one human family and one Earth .
Environmental issues are issues related to human impact on the living environment, habitats, land use and natural resources.. The following alphabetical list shows some of the main known environmental issues by major topic title: Acidification (includes algal bloom, coral reef loss, etc.).
The Devastating Effects of Environmental Degradation - A Case Study of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria human well-being We're in the midst a study on the human impact on the permanent destruction of earth of the Earth's sixth mass extinction Humans' impact has been so profound A study of nations found that human population density Magnetism is not felt by the human .
Deforestation and Its Extreme Effect on Global Warming. From logging, agricultural production and other economic activities, deforestation adds more atmospheric CO2 than the sum total of cars and. Why Is It Important to Return the Animals to the Same Place They Were Collected From?