History of Ethiopia Though the issuing of minted coins didn't begin until aroundmetal coins may have been used in Aksum centuries prior to centralized minting.
Economic history of Japan The economic history of Japan is one of the most studied economies for its spectacular growth in three different periods. First was the foundation of Edo in to whole inland economical developments, second was the Meiji Restoration in to be the first non-European power, third was after the defeat of World War II in when the island nation rose to become the world's second largest economy.
First contacts with Europe 16th century [ edit ] Main article: Nanban trade Japan was considered as a country rich in precious metals, mainly owing to Marco Polo 's accounts of gilded temples and palaces, but also due to the relative abundance of surface ores characteristic of a massive huge volcanic country, before large-scale deep-mining became possible in Industrial times.
It was densely populated and urbanized. Prominent European observers of the time seemed to agree that the Japanese "excel not only all the other Oriental peoples, they surpass the Europeans as well" Alessandro Valignano, "Historia del Principo y Progresso de la Compania de Jesus en las Indias Orientales.
Early European visitors were amazed by the quality of Japanese craftsmanship and metalsmithing.
This stems from the fact that Japan itself is rather rich in natural resources found commonly in Europe, especially iron. The cargo of the first Portuguese ships usually about 4 smaller-sized ships every year arriving in Japan almost entirely consisted of Chinese goods silk, porcelain.
The Portuguese who were called Nanban, lit. Southern Barbarians therefore found the opportunity to act as intermediaries in Asian trade. Edo period — [ edit ] Japanese export porcelain in the European shape of a barber's basin, with copulating cock, around The beginning of the Edo period coincides with the last decades of the Nanban trade periodduring which intense interaction with European powers, on the economic and religious plane, took place.
It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built her first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautistaa ton galleon -type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which then continued to Europe.
Also during that period, the bakufu commissioned around Red Seal Shipsthree-masted and armed trade ships, for intra-Asian commerce. Japanese adventurers, such as Yamada Nagamasawere active throughout Asia.
In order to eradicate the influence of ChristianizationJapan entered in a period of isolation called sakokuduring which its economy enjoyed stability and mild progress. For the rest of the 17th century most Japanese porcelain production was for export, mostly in Kyushu.
The trade dwindled under renewed Chinese competition by the s, before resuming after the opening of Japan in the midth century.
The construction trades flourished, along with banking facilities and merchant associations. Increasingly, han authorities oversaw the rising agricultural production and the spread of rural handicrafts. By the mid-eighteenth century, Edo had a population of more than 1 million and Osaka and Kyoto each had more thaninhabitants.
Many other castle towns grew as well. Osaka and Kyoto became busy trading and handicraft production centers, while Edo was the center for the supply of food and essential urban consumer goods.
Rice was the base of the economy, as the daimyo collected the taxes from the peasants in the form of rice. The rice was sold at the fudasashi market in Edo.This book examines and compares policy making in telecommunications in Britain and France over the last three decades.
It confronts important questions related to liberalization, regulation and the role of the nation state in an increasingly international economy and analyzes the theoretical strengths and weaknesses of various models of . and developmental economics, and political econom y have modified this law to predict the effects that distance and populati on have on people, commodities tr ade, the exchange of ideas, and so on.
The history of telecommunication began with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, the Americas and parts of Asia.
In the s, the first fixed semaphore systems emerged in Europe ; however it was not until the s that electrical telecommunication systems started to appear. Mar 02, · The history of telecommunications is the ultimate story of evolution, stretching back some 40, years. This video traces the threads of breath-taking ingenuity, and at times imitation, through.
Privy Council, have a history dating back to the 13th century.
Their original purpose was to Their original purpose was to create public or private corporations (including towns . Early history of telecommunications A drawing of a Chappe semaphore tower, showing how the arms could be set for different letters and numbers.
Semaphore tower and code A drawing of a Chappe semaphore tower, showing how the arms could be set for different letters and numbers.