It is pure honey where nothing has been added or removed. To be raw, honey should not be heated above temperatures one would normal find in a hive approximately 95 degrees F. Additionally it should not be ultra-finely filtered to the point of removing pollen and organic materials that are an intrinsic constituent of honey.
The activity of manuka honey is largely due to the presence of methylglyoxal MGOwhich is produced non-enzymatically from dihydroxyacetone DHA present in manuka nectar. December 28, Copyright: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Introduction Honey has been used therapeutically by many cultures for millennia and has re-emerged as a topical treatment for wound and skin infections, mainly due to its antimicrobial activity [ 1 ].
The growing crisis of antibiotic resistance [ 8 ] has revived interest in the clinical use of honey, particularly in wound care and its efficacy against drug-resistant pathogens. Several properties of honey contribute to its antimicrobial activity. In most honeys, it is the high osmolarity, low pH, and, most predominantly, the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide that exerts an antimicrobial effect [ 9 ].
The level of antimicrobial activity is highly variable and depends on the floral source, processing and storage conditions of the honey, prevailing environmental conditions that affect the physiology of the floral species, and bee-related factors such as age or colony health [ 10 — 16 ].
Honey with high NPA is highly sought after for use in medical-grade honey products as it is not destroyed by the catalase present in body fluids, and can withstand gamma irradiation [ 22 ], which is used for sterilisation. The compound primarily responsible for the NPA of manuka honey has been identified as methylglyoxal MGOwhich forms from the nectar-derived compound, dihydroxyacetone DHAduring the ripening of honey [ 23 — 25 ].
There are a number of microbiological and chemical tests that are used in the honey industry to determine the suitability of honey as an antibacterial product. DHA, which converts to MGO during storage, is an indicator of the potential for honey to increase in activity.
Finally, hydroxymethylfurfural HMFwhich occurs spontaneously in all honey types, is often quantified by HPLC as a measure of honey freshness and as a measure of spoilage as it increases in concentration with storage length and temperature.
The wealth of evidence that supports New Zealand manuka honey as a modern healthcare option has translated to commercial success for the industry.
However, New Zealand will not be able to support the likely growing demand for medical-grade honey [ 28 ]. Furthermore, New Zealand honey supply is at risk due to infection of their honey bee Apis mellifera populations by the parasitic varroa mite [ 29 ], which is associated with colony collapse disorder, an alarming phenomenon that significantly threatens global honey production [ 30 ].
Identification of the floral source of the honey was performed at the time of collection by the apiarists based on the local floral species in bloom prior to honey harvesting, location of the apiary and organoleptic characteristics of the honey.
Briefly, this method involved accurately weighing 0. Hydroxyacetone internal standard 0. Quantitation standards were prepared by dissolving known concentrations of the standard solutions in six aliquots of clover honey which has no detectable MGO, DHA or HMF unless spiked.
Chemical profile data analysis. The calibration curves were derived from the quantitation standards by plotting the masses of MGO, DHA and HMF in each of the spiked clover honey standards against their peak area ratios relative to the hydroxyacetone internal standard.
Descriptive statistical analysis i. The diameter of each zone of inhibition was measured at perpendicular angles using digital Vernier callipers accurate to 0. The mean diameter of the zone of inhibition was calculated and squared, and a standard curve was generated using the phenol standards concentration of phenol versus mean squared diameter.
The NPA of honey was calculated using the standard curve, multiplied by 4. Each honey sample was tested in duplicate on three separate occasions.
Antibacterial activity data analysis. All data were analysed qualitatively and statistical analysis of change in activity over time was performed with Minitab Express v.Apparent C4 Sugars in Manuka Honeys.
This article was written by Dr Anatoly Chernyshev (Analytica Scientist) and published in the NZ Beekeeper magazine in November This topic has 45 study abstracts on Honey indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Wound Healing, MRSA, and Staphylococcus aureus: Methicillin-resistant (MRSA).
"College-level health collections strong in pharmaceutical science and alternative medicine will find Honey in Traditional and Modern Medicine a specific, clear discussion of the medical uses of honey, and will want to include this in any health holding.
From honey's chemical composition and healing properties to its botanical origins, description, and other qualities, chapters survey medicine. ID Name Physical Address Listing Date Expiry Date; BK 3 J's Honey: Huia Street, Camberley HASTINGS: 30/03/ 30/03/ BK Degrees Bees Limited.
Airborne honey leads the industry in it's production of quality Manuka honey. The most common honey source of these is Leptospermum scoparium. Other names for this plant include kahikatoa, red tea tree, and red manuka.
ID Name Physical Address Listing Date Expiry Date; BK 3 J's Honey: Huia Street, Camberley HASTINGS: 30/03/ 30/03/ BK Degrees Bees Limited.