However, some critics have argued that any literature that expresses an opposition to colonialism, even if it is produced during a colonial period, may be defined as postcolonial, primarily due to its oppositional nature. Despite a basic consensus on the general themes of postcolonial writing, however, there is ongoing debate regarding the meaning of postcolonialism.
Nationalism in Music, Europe and the United States Nationalism in music has traditionally been described as a late-nineteenth-century phenomenon associated Defining nationalism essays countries or regions aspiring to nationhood whose composers strove to wed a national most often folk-based musical idiom to existing "main-stream" genres.
Within this narrative line, the rise of a musical form of Impressionism in France and the genesis of a distinctively American music may be seen as late developments, somewhat out of step with general trends. Yet nationalism has provided the principal cultural and political framework for musical expression within European-based traditions for most of the nineteenth century and has continued to do so up to the present.
This tendency has not been widely noted for two main reasons: First, it remained overlooked because of the entrenched habit of considering European music history apart from history more generally, as encouraged by the doctrine of absolute music ; and second, the genesis and development of musicology—the discipline entrusted to tell the history of music—were both intimately connected to nationalist ideologies.
Musicology and Nationalism Music history in the nineteenth century has generally been perceived in Defining nationalism essays of "mainstream" traditions continuing from the late eighteenth century, the general rise of Romanticism across these mainstreams, and the splintering into a variety of "nationalist" musics in the later part of the century.
But nationalism lay at the heart of all facets of this master narrative, from the maintenance of the "mainstreams" to Romanticism and, most especially, to the narrative perspective.
The principal task of historical musicology, for much of the time since abouthas been the promotion and development of a historicist canon to support a particular nationalist ideology.
Moreover, as European nationalism, especially in Germany and Italy, led to two world wars in the twentieth century, some of its victims who fled to the United States especially in the s established the American scholarly tradition in musicology, teaching the same history they had been taught and thus perpetuating the view that the most important musical tradition was German, which was to be understood as the least nationalist and most universal Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, etc.
Nationalism and Art Nationalism holds that a "people," whether defined in terms of cultural or ethnic roots, constitutes the only legitimate basis for a political state.
This belief took root in Europe around the beginning of the nineteenth century, as an outgrowth of German Romanticism, the French Revolutionthe Napoleonic wars, and according to some views human inclinations. The merger of nationalist feeling and art was accomplished using the model proposed by German poet and philosopher Friedrich von Schiller — of how an artist might project—for those in the urbanized present who stand in imperfect relation to a more ideal past—either a fuller sense of that lost past through idyll and elegya critical account of the present through satireor a believable future restoration.
Coupled with the idea of the Volksgeist the spirit of a people promulgated by fellow German Johann Gottfried von Herder —Schiller's structure became a recipe for the nationalist artist: Images, narratives, and projections that instill belief in a people's valued past—that is, mythologies—thus quickly became a core ingredient in the artistic advancement of nationalism.
German Nationalism The early stages of a specifically musical engagement with nationalism may be found in the late-eighteenth-century fascination with folk songwhich fed the development of early nineteenth-century German lieder, folk-based chamber songs expressive of a yearning subjectivity.
In his lieder, Franz Schubert — placed that subjectivity, often alienated, within a specific landscape, frequently carried within the piano's figuration. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony is implicitly nationalist, but in a forward-looking way, projecting a temporal and geographic fusion of classical Greek ideals Elysium"oriental" "Turkish" tropes, and modern German Christianity.
In the generation following his death, Beethoven became the cornerstone of Germany's nationalist claims to preeminence in music. By the middle of the nineteenth century, older German musical treasures from the past especially those by J.
Bach were being systematically collected, establishing a milestone in the nascent field of musicology. After the Franco-Prussian War — and the unification of Germany that resulted from it, the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth—the opera house designed and built by Wagner—became an enduring monument to "Holy German Art.
After the Franco-Prussian warFrench composers, who until then competed primarily with Italy, and mainly in the domain of opera, began to engage deliberately with Germany's proclaimed mastery of instrumental music, at which point various musical nationalisms began to proliferate according to the familiar narrative outlined above.
Features of Nationalist Music While musical nationalism could adopt a variety of specific profiles according to the "nation" involved, these all had a number of features in common. Many nationalist musics relied on folk idioms that, however inaccurately, could be claimed as a national heritage.
Opera and program music lent themselves easily to national themes; and opera also had recourse to rousing choruses, which could not only evoke the character and presence of a people—most notably "Va, pensiero" in Verdi's Nabucco and the coronation scene in Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov —but also cross over into popular currency.
Ethnographic studies could either add legitimacy to native folk idioms or form the basis for a nationally conceived exotic "other" to be assimilated and synthesized in national terms.Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Militant Nationalism Definition.
StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes.
Essays; Resource Center Defining religion is difficult as there are many definitions as there are many authors. A recent Peter Beinart column opened with a reference to the essay: In , George Orwell distinguished between “nationalism” and “patriotism.” Thus Orwell didn’t define nationalism.
joep leerssen when was romantic nationalism?
Nationalism: Definition Before you start writing your paper, you should conduct thorough research and find out what the nationalism is, what are the main drawbacks and merits, etc. According to Oxford Dictionaries, nationalism is the identification with nation and support for its interests. Defining Hinduism is concerned not only with what Hinduism is, but also with what it has been, and with the history of the term "Hinduism". Defining Hinduism brings together essays by some of the most influential and interesting scholars working on the religions of South Asia today. As another historical example, the NSDAP of the s also permitted the election of local party leaders, a policy that was abolished as the party transitioned into a regime from a movement. A second key conceptual cluster of historical fascism is the conjunction of nationalism and populism.
the onset, the long tail, the banal nise essays 2 nise essays 0 L. Boeva, Rien de plus international. Romantic Nationalism provided states with the canon of the nation’s defining cultural characteristics, and (derived from that) the quasi-religious moral charisma, which allowed the state to.
Ethno-nationalism is a term that refers to nationalism based on this consciousness of ethnic nationality, as opposed to civic nationality" ("Week 1"). This is in direct contrast to civic nationality.
Civic nationality centers on the shared territory of the group of people.
Defining nationalism is not an easy task but as a start, one must define its root word- "nation". Nation can be defined as, "people whose collective identity is based on common descent, language, religion, sense of history, customs and traditions, who usually (but do not always) inhabit a specific territory.
June global regents essay on nationalism. Lab 11 animal behavior essay buick gap between rich and poor essay africa my africa poem analysis essays research paper on google glass pdf respect essay karting warehouse dissertation tu dresden psychologie magazine essay about dolly the sheep pictures sleepy hollow defining.