Drug testing in the workplace research papers

Sweat Patch Drug Testing Technologies: Sweat Patch A recent innovation in the science of drug testing, the PharmChek Drugs of Abuse Patch - or "sweat patch" - is used to test for various illegal drugs.

Drug testing in the workplace research papers

Overview[ edit ] Origin of term[ edit ] U. The word is linked to the use of a whistle to alert the public or a crowd about a bad situation, such as the commission of a crime or the breaking of rules during a game. The phrase whistle blower attached itself to law enforcement officials in the 19th century because they used a whistle to alert the public or fellow police.

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By the yearthe phrase had become a hyphenated word, whistle-blower. The word began to be used by journalists in the s for people who revealed wrongdoing, such as Nader.

It eventually evolved into the compound word whistleblower. The coming ISO [17] — anti-bribery management systems standard, includes anonymous reporting as one of the criteria for the new standard. External[ edit ] External whistleblowers, however, report misconduct to outside persons or entities.

In these cases, depending on the information's severity and nature, whistleblowers may report the misconduct to lawyersthe medialaw enforcement or watchdog agenciesor other local, state, or federal agencies. In some cases, external whistleblowing is encouraged by offering monetary reward.

Third party[ edit ] The third party service involves utilizing an external agency to inform the individuals at the top of the organizational pyramid of misconduct, without disclosing the identity of the whistleblower.

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This is a relatively new phenomenon and has been developed due to whistleblower discrimination. International Whistleblowers is an example of an organization involved in delivering a third party service for whistleblowers.

An increasing number of companies and authorities use third party services in which the whistleblower is anonymous also towards the third party service provider.

This is possible via toll free phone numbers configured not to record the whistleblower origin call, and also through web solutions which apply asymmetrical encryption. Private sector whistleblowing[ edit ] Private sector whistleblowing, though not as high profile as public sector whistleblowing, is arguably more prevalent and suppressed in society today.

Drug testing in the workplace research papers

An example of private sector whistleblowing is when an employee reports to someone in a higher position such as a manager, or a third party that is isolated from the individual chapter, such as their lawyer or the police.

In the private sector corporate groups can easily hide wrongdoings by individual branches. It is not until these wrongdoings bleed into the top officials that corporate wrongdoings are seen by the public.

Situations in which a person may blow the whistle are in cases of violated laws or company policy, such as sexual harassment or theft. These instances, nonetheless, are small compared to money laundering or fraud charges on the stock market.

Whistleblowing in the private sector is typically not as high-profile or openly discussed in major news outlets, though occasionally, third parties expose human rights violations and exploitation of workers. In an effort to overcome those fears, in Dodd—Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was put forth to provide great incentive to whistleblowers.

For example, if a whistleblower gave information which could be used to legally recover over one million dollars; then they could receive ten to thirty percent of it.

Despite government efforts to help regulate the private sector, the employees must still weigh their options. They either expose the company and stand the moral and ethical high ground; or expose the company, lose their job, their reputation and potentially the ability to be employed again.

According to a study at the University of Pennsylvania, out of three hundred whistleblowers studied, sixty nine percent of them had foregone that exact situation; and they were either fired or were forced to retire after taking the ethical high ground.

It is outcomes like that which makes it all that much harder to accurately track how prevalent whistleblowing is in the private sector. In the United States, both state and Federal statutes have been put in place to protect whistleblowers from retaliation.

The United States Supreme Court ruled that public sector whistleblowers are protected under First Amendment rights from any job retaliation when they raise flags over alleged corruption. Private sector whistleblowing protection laws were in place long before ones for the public sector. After many federal whistleblowers were scrutinized in high-profile media cases, laws were finally introduced to protect government whistleblowers.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.

We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Mar 29,  · Following models established in the workplace, some schools conduct drug testing on students suspected of illicit drug use (called reasonable suspicion/cause testing).

However, there are some restrictions on random testing . From the Paper: "Drug testing in the work place should not be an adversarial confrontation, as it seems to be in many places.

After all, an employee is hired to create profitability through efficiency and innovation for the employer, in . Workplace bullying is a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes either physical or emotional harm.

It can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and lausannecongress2018.com type of workplace aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical school bully, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules.

In today’s workplace, drug testing has become a controversial matter. Every employer, regardless of industry or profession, must decide which way to position themselves and their company.

There are many who feel that drug /5(1). The Company also reports that it has commenced identification of medical device manufacturers in order to implement human factor design (single or dual stage design), verification testing, and develop manufacturing documentation for standardization requirements, as well as create multiple devices for pilot testing.

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