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Discussion In order to provide direct answers to the research questions posed at the beginning of this study, we will use them as headings for the three sections in this Discussion section. In this study, using the shot-gun approach that Brown called the hit-or-miss method involved administering five cloze tests and selecting the best of the five exact-answer forms for future administrations.
In this particular investigation, that turned out to be more complicated than we had anticipated. Depending on the criterion used, three different cloze passages might be chosen: Based on the best centered mean that is, the mean closest to the midpoint on the continuum from 0 to 30 possible pointsForm EX E should be selected see Table 1 ; b.
We expected those three criteria to converge on a single passage, but they did not. If they had, the choice of which passage to keep for future administrations would have been considerably simplified.
However, even as the results turned out, a teacher might decide on one passage or another based on one of the three criteria listed above, depending on what is most important in the particular situation.
In that case, criterion a. In another situation, where important placement decisions would be made based on the cloze test, spreading the students out might be more important. In this second case, criterion b. Elsewhere in this study, the modification method, as it was labeled by Brownrequired changing variables like scoring scheme, deletion pattern, or number of items to improve how well a cloze test functions.
Modifying the scoring scheme clearly had a salutary effect on the descriptive statistics for the cloze tests in this study. As shown in Table 1, the means and standard deviations were higher in all cases for the acceptable-answer scoring than for the exact-answer scoring, and the ranges were equal or higher in all cases.
Thus, at least this one type of modification seems to have improved the descriptive characteristics of all five versions of the cloze tests under investigation here. Combining both the hit-or-miss method with the modification method, Forms AC C and AC E appear to be about equally well centered in terms of their means, and AC E has the highest overall range as shown in Table 1while AC C has the highest standard deviation.
Thus based solely on the descriptive statistics for the hit-or-miss and modification methods, we could not decide definitively which single form is best overall in these five original cloze versions scored for acceptable-answers.
The tailored-cloze method, as defined in Browna and as used here, required using traditional item analysis techniques to improve how well a cloze passage functions. In the present study, the two cloze versions that were tailored in that manner proved to be far superior to any of the original versions in terms of having higher standard deviations and ranges as a quick comparison of Tables 1 and Table 4 will show.
However, based solely on the descriptive statistics, we cannot decide definitively, using either the tailored-cloze method alone, which of the cloze tests is likely to function the best in future administrations.
At best, we can say that Revised EX is the best centered, while Revised AC is very well centered and has the highest range and standard deviation.
Turning to the item analyses and the hit-or-miss method, the selection of which test works best from among the five exact-answer original cloze versions would differ depending on the criteria used in a manner very similar to the descriptive statistics and for similar reasons.
As for applying the modification method, we can certainly say that, similar to the descriptive statistics, modifying the scoring scheme clearly had a salutary effect on the item statistics for the cloze tests in this study. As shown in Table 2, in all cases, the mean IFs and mean IDs for the acceptable-answer scoring were equal to or higher than the comparable statistics for the exact-answer scoring.
In addition, there were fewer non-functioning items in the acceptable-answer versions. Thus so far, based on the descriptive statistics and item analyses, Form AC C appears to be the best overall from among the five original cloze tests scored for exact or acceptable answers.
As for the tailored-cloze method in the present study, the two cloze versions that were tailored proved to be far superior to any of the original versions within the same scoring schemes in terms of having better-centered mean IF values and higher mean item discrimination values as a quick comparison of Tables 2 and Table 5 will reveal.
Based on the item analyses alone, we cannot definitively say which of the tailored cloze tests is likely to function the best in the future administrations.
Finally examining the reliability estimates and the hit-or-miss method, the selection of which test works best from among the five exact-answer original cloze versions is relatively straightforward: EX B is the most reliable test according to the Cronbach alpha and split-half strategies see Table 3.
Since EX B also had the second highest mean ID and standard deviation reasonably good centering based on the mean and mean IF, EX B would appear to be a reasonably good candidate for selection as the best overall cloze test for exact-answer scoring if we were using the hit-or-miss method.
As for applying the modification method, we can again say that modifying the scoring scheme to the acceptable-answer scoring clearly had a salutary effect on the reliability of all the cloze tests in this study.
As can be seen in Table 3, for all forms but one Form Bthe reliability estimates for acceptable-answer scoring are higher than the comparable statistics for the exact-answer scoring.
Combining the hit-or-miss and modification methods, we note that Form AC C has the highest Cronbach alpha and split-half adjusted reliability estimates at. Thus, using the hit-or-miss and modification methods, Form AC C appears to be the best overall from among the five original cloze versions scored for exact or acceptable answers.
As for the tailored-cloze method, the tailored-cloze versions proved to be superior to any of the original versions within the same scoring schemes in terms of reliability estimates. Based on the descriptive statistics, item analyses, and reliability estimates, we can only say for sure, at this point, that the acceptable-answer revision would likely function reasonably well in future administrations.An implicit assumption in studies of cloze effectiveness is that cloze tasks will by the reading subtest of the Science Research Associates Achievement Test (Primary II) administered within four months of the time of the study.
This group Poor Readers. 2. Effects of the Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension. To use the Cloze Test Procedure to score material, follow this protocol: Administration 1.
Omit every 5th word, replacing it with a blank space for the student to write in the answer. 2. Instruct students to write only one word in each blank and to try to fill in every blank. 3. Guessing is encouraged. 4. which we used to test the reading ability of the native English, have the same effectiveness with the foreign learners of the language.
Alderson (, p. 87) identifies three different types of questions used in reading test. test, cloze-test, C-test, cloze-elide test, . The present study aims to study the effectiveness of cloze test vs. C-test as measures of reading comprehension.
So through this study, I try to answer the following research question: 1. Is there any difference between advanced subjects’ performance on the C-test and their scores on the cloze.
After that, the effectiveness of C-test and cloze test became the main interest of the scientists in the field of language testing.
The present study aims to compare the results of multiple-choice cloze test with those of C-test as measures of reading comprehension.
To this end, one traditional C-test and one fixed ratio (n=7) multiple-choice. free essay: effectiveness of cloze – test as integrative assessment in reading comprehension at laguna state polytechnic university san pablo city campus.