Poor health and hygienic conditions takes death toll in civil war

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Poor health and hygienic conditions takes death toll in civil war

But it was a source of considerable problems too. Her employer offered no paid sick days, no paid family leave, and just one week of vacation per year.

These supports, which workers and employers in most countries have come to accept as standard and necessary for working families, include paid leave for new parents, flexible scheduling, breastfeeding and pumping accommodations, paid sick days that can be used for family care, and prohibitions on workplace discrimination based on family responsibilities.

One of the most common work-family supports, paid maternity leave, is practically universal: In nine of the countries, the status of paid leave for new mothers was unclear. Just three countries definitively offer no legal guarantee of paid maternity leave: This lack of paid leave under law in America is at odds with a workforce revolution in which female participation in paid labor skyrocketed over the past century, especially among those with young children.

In the US more than 19 million families with children now have a mother as the primary or co-breadwinner, and 70 percent of children live in households in which all adults are in the labor force. Married women with children under age six were almost four times more likely to be in the paid workforce in as they were in The idealized notion is that private markets will foster such supports as employers compete for good workers.

In reality, however, huge swaths of the workforce have no such supports, and there are enormous disparities in access. For example, leaving decisions about whether to offer paid family leave—including for new parents—mostly up to employers has resulted in just 11 percent of civilian workers having such benefits, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Lower-income and part-time workers—mainly women—are far less likely to have paid family leave than other workers. Some new parents can use paid sick or vacation days, or other forms of paid leave after childbirth or adoption.

But about one-third of the workforce has no such benefits. The federal Family and Medical Leave Act FMLA enables workers with new children or family members with serious medical conditions to take unpaid job-protected leave, but only covers about half the workforce.

The law largely neglects workplace flexibility in scheduling, policies to support pumping breast milk or breastfeeding for workers at all levels, and protections against discrimination for workers with family responsibilities.

Based on interviews with 64 parents nationwide, this report examines work-family supports in the United States, and the disparate access that employees have to such supports. It compares paid leave and other work-family policies in the US with those of other countries and the standards firmly established in international law.

It also considers the health, financial, and career impacts of becoming a parent in America, where legally guaranteed paid leave is either limited or entirely absent and workplace attitudes are frequently hostile toward workers with family responsibilities.

Human Rights Watch heard consistent accounts of the harmful consequences of inadequate paid family and sick leave after childbirth or adoption, employer reticence to offer breastfeeding support or flexible schedules, and career fallout from becoming parents.

Parents with short and unpaid leaves described delaying immunizations and health care visits for babies; physical and mental health problems for parents; short periods or early cessation of breastfeeding and dismal conditions for pumping; financial hardship; debt; demotion; and denials of raises or promotions.

Same-sex partners of biological mothers were almost all denied even unpaid FMLA leave. Most interviewees said that work-family supports—even a few weeks of paid leave for themselves or their partners—would have significantly eased these difficulties. Human Rights Watch also interviewed several parents who benefited from flexible work policies and paid family leave and were intensely loyal to their employers as a result.

They provided strikingly different accounts to those who lacked such supports. For example, many parents described how lack of paid leave and flexible work conditions jeopardized their health and that of their children.


Her few days of sick pay were depleted and she could not afford more unpaid leave. Hazel had used her two weeks of paid sick time right after birth, and was not entitled to more.

But her employer threatened to fire her when she tried to use the small number of paid sick days to which she was entitled, and she never sought treatment. Some families delayed or missed health visits and immunizations for their babies because their employers would not give them time off after maternity or paternity leaves, or because they lost health insurance during unpaid leave.

Dozens of women said they wanted to continue breastfeeding for the health of their babies, but workplace conditions for pumping were so difficult that they gave up nursing early.

Financial distress due to work leave with little or no pay was also a major issue for parents. She worked extra hours when pregnant to save money. But losing income during maternity leave led her to incur credit card debt, have trouble paying rent, and resort to a food bank.Child Rights.

Sri Lanka (TCHR is an independent Human Rights organisation – not affiliated to any Tamil Federation or Association) An Appeal to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. "The technology is very practical and uses icon based instructions.

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Poor health and hygienic conditions takes death toll in civil war

When the Civil War broke out, pioneering doctors Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell were involved in the establishment of the U.S. Sanitary Commission and helped to select and train nurses for war work. As the repository for more than a thousand Civil War collections, the Manuscript Division holds extensive material relating to women's medical .

Lack of Paid Leave and Work-Family Supports in the US | HRW

Singular Nouns Starting with D. Dab (n.) A skillful hand; a dabster; an expert. Dab (n.) A name given to several species of flounders, esp. to the European species, Pleuronectes limanda. Close/Dismiss Window Low birth weight.

What does this indicator tell us? At population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public health problem that includes long-term maternal mal nutrition, ill health and poor health care in lausannecongress2018.com birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries.

Infant Feeding Support for Refugee Children is a group of mothers and other interested people, working as volunteers, to gather and co-ordinate support for the infants (newborns to age two years old and beyond) fleeing war and thus caught in the refugee crisis.

Health and Medicine: Civil War:Manuscript Division