It Was Lecture Season: Go forth and democratize. Starting a business; dealing with construction permits; electricity; registering property;getting credit; protecting minority interests; paying taxes; trading across borders; enforcing contracts; insolvency issues. All of these are factors used to calculate Ease of Doing Business.
With the use of tanks, attack helicopters, and artillery against The darfur crisis a violation of human rights in sudan and the torture and execution of children, protests spread and opposition groups took up arms.
The attacks and counter-attacks escalated into a full-fledged civil war between the Assad regime with allied militias and an array of opposition groups.
On August 21,the crisis took on a dangerous new dimension with a chemical weapons attack by the Syrian regime that killed over 1, people, according to a U. The use of chemical weapons in Syria continue to be reported by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons OPWCbut without clarity on what parties are responsible.
The majority of civilians have been killed at the hands of the Assad regime, which has targeted schools and medical centers with crude barrel bombs.
The crisis has grown to a regional crisis with severe implications for global peace and security. Regional powers are supplying weapons and other support to both sides, with Iran notably backing the Assad regime and Gulf States providing arms to the opposition.
Sectarian violence related to the conflict has been seen in Lebanon and Iraq and millions of refugees have fled into neighboring countries.
Appeals for international aid have increased as the UN refugee agency UNHCR in September estimated that over 4 million Syrians were now refugees, up from around 3 million just one year before. Hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees have made their way to Europe creating a crisis that has launched intense debate in Europe and the United States.
The debate over how to respond to the attacks has deeply divided the international community from acceptance of refugees to the best ways to protect civilians and ultimately to reach a political solution. The brutal response prompted further non-violent demonstrations across Syria, helping to transform and diffuse series of local grievances into a widespread call for the end of the Assad regime.
Security forces used tanks, combat helicopters, artillery and other heavy weapons against centers of anti-government protest as reflected in numerous massacres.
Sectarian violence also increased with some armed opposition groups committing human rights abuses against Alawite communities due to their perceived support for the government. The levels of violence prompted the International Committee for the Red Cross to declare the situation in Syria a civil war in July The new status meant that international humanitarian law applies to all areas where hostilities are taking place.
Fighting and abuses have continued dividing the country into areas controlled by the government and an array of opposition groups. The rise of the Islamic State ISIS has further complicated the conflict and brought in a new level of barbarity that has prompted air strikes by both the Syrian regime and the United States and its allies.
Weapons and other material support continue to flow in to all sides as the United States and other countries debate further involvement. The Opposition The formation of an opposition umbrella, the Syrian National Coalition in November and its subsequent international recognition, including from the United States, appeared to increase the likelihood for a political resolution to the unrelenting crisis.
But disagreements among opposition forces over the makeup of a post-Assad transition government raised doubt over their credentials as a viable alternative to the Assad regime.
Further complicating peace efforts, the opposition remains deeply divided beyond their common enemy in the Assad regime. Many extremist Islamist elements have poured into Syria.
Estimates vary widely as to the numbers of extremist elements making up the opposition, but their forces have been cited as among the most effective in combating the Assad regime, further complicating the crisis and opening worries about what a post-Assad Syria might look like.
International Response The United Nations has condemned the violence against civilians, but has been unable to agree on appropriate action.
A resolution UNSC Res condemning the bombing of civilian areas and the use of barrel bombs was finally passed in Februarybut little action has been seen despite ongoing violations by the Assad regime. The Syrian regime also continues to block delivery of cross-border humanitarian aid in violation of two other Security Council resolutions.
Various peace efforts have been tried with the UN now on its third Special Envoy. The report also concludes that the Government forces and Shabiha fighters were responsible for the Houla massacre. While opposition forces also committed war crimes, including murder and torture, the CoI says that their violations and abuses were not of the same gravity, frequency and scale as those committed by Government forces and Shabiha militias.
The plight of an increasing flow of refugees, captured in a heart wrenching photo of the body of a small boy washed up on a beach in Greece, sparked intense debate within Europe and the United States.
Though the Obama administration has pledged to take in more, human rights groups and former U. What Are We Watching For?
Effect of increased support by Russia and Iran for the Assad regime. Potential changes in U. International response to the increasing refugee crisis. Escalation of the violence on the ground and sectarian violence spreading across to Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, or elsewhere.
Further use of chemical weapons and barrel bombs. President Obama, Accept More Syrian Refugees After four years of war and living under the constant threat of mass atrocities and genocide, there are two things the Syrian people need: We can offer that.
The United States has only accepted 1, Syrians in the past four years. And while President Obama has offered to increase that number to 10, the scale of the crisis demands a number ten times that. Urge President Obama to increase the number of Syrian refugees accepted into the United States and work to make sure that relief efforts are fully funded.The Extent of Human Rights violations in Darfur.
The Rwanda crisis (April - June ), the Cambodian crisis ( ), and the actions of the Nazi regime in Germany inflicted upon the Jewish population ( ) are a few past examples of occurrences in which a government perpetrated violence against individuals and groups, hence violating human rights.
1. Material fields of application: complementarity Introductory text. IHL is applicable in armed conflicts only. International Human Rights Law is applicable in all situations.
All but the non-derogable provisions, the “hard core” of International Human Rights Law, however, may be suspended, under certain conditions, in situations threatening the life of the nation.
Saleh Younis (SAAY) has been writing about Eritrea since when he published "Eritrean Exponent", a quarterly print journal. His writing has been published in several media outlets including Dehai, Eritrean Studies Review, Visafric, Asmarino and, of course, Awate where his column has appeared since the launch of the website in UN News produces daily news content in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Kiswahili, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, and weekly programmes in Hindi, Urdu and Bangla.
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Our Water Supply, Down the Drain. August 23, Washington Post In the United States, we worry about oil shortages, water is another important limited natural resource, in many parts of the country. Local human rights organizations include the Khartoum Center for Human Rights and the Sudan Development Organization.
The government did not allow the .