In early uses the word had a pejorative meaning, implying that what was new and modern could not be as good as what had the prestige of approval over a period of time. Baudelaire as both poet and critic was one of the first to splice the meaning of "modern" in a modest article relating to his viewing of the art of his time. Succeeding generations have been calling themselves modern and allowing the word to lose gradually its defensive tone and instead assume an attitude of contestation and even arrogance.
Many of this generation who considered themselves writers and artists ended up living in Paris during the 20s and 30s. The term Lost Generation was coined by Gertrude Stein.
They also lived a largely Bohemian lifestyle on the Paris left bank; there were many lesbians among this group, affairs were rampant, open relationships abounded, and it was all fuelled by copious amounts of alcohol.
The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingwaywho used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Steinwho was then his mentor and patron. The years immediately after World War I brought a highly vocal rebellion against established social, sexual, and aesthetic conventions and a vigorous attempt to establish new values.
Young artists flocked to Greenwich Village, Chicago, and San Francisco, determined to protest and intent on making a new art. Others went to Europe, living mostly in Paris as expatriates.
They willingly accepted the name given them by Gertrude Stein: Out of their disillusion and rejection, the writers built a new literature, impressive in the glittering s and the years that followed.
Characteristics of the Lost Generation The members of the Lost Generation were born at the turn of the 20th century, when the world was changing at a rapid pace. The automobile was making its mark on society, becoming a popular mode of transportation.
The Wright Brothers took the first airplane flight. With the competition for jobs and ever-increasing class distinction, the members of the Lost Generation became independent and self-sufficient, not looking to their elders for guidance.
World War I had a tremendous influence on this generation. It lasted many years, and by the time it had ended, millions of men had been affected by the horrors of battle, losing a sense of the values their parents had instilled in them. After the soldiers returned home, governments started ignoring their heroes, which caused the veterans to become quickly disillusioned with government.
In fact, this generation became skeptical of all authority, especially now that their parents were pushing for Prohibition. After the war, the Lost Generation started exploring its own set of values, ones that clearly went against what their elders had already established. This self-indulgent spree came crashing to a halt when the stock market crashed inleaving this generation to navigate the Great Depression during what would be the high point of their careers.
Members of the Lost Generation were also nomadic. Many who had been to war no longer felt the need to return home, instead flocking to cities and even to Europe.
Paris became one of the biggest outposts for expatriates, and it became a center for literary achievement of the day. Literature Characteristic The literature of the Victorian era reflected the tone of the day.
It tended to be both overblown and moralistic, reflecting the idea that with hard work one could go far. Sexual references were frowned on.
This was an era when propriety ruled. It was also the era into which the lost generation was born. After WWI, these ideas were not acceptable to many artists, poets and writers and their work reflected it. Hemingway led the way with the sparseness of his novels. He was specific in his writings, eschewing generalities.
Nothing was off limits. His work was considered crude, vulgar and coarse by his critics. But for every critic, there was a devoted reader. Among the most famous are F. He was a heavy drinker and partier, rebellious and questioned traditional values and beliefs, and sought Paris to gain a perspective on himself and his country.
Liquor, beer, and wine were illegal throughout America.
However, although alcohol was banned, Americans continued to manufacture and drink it; men and women actually drank more of it. They created new ways of transporting it without getting arrested. One method was using a hip flask; another was hiding it in books and coconut shells, or by filling hot-water bottles and hiding it under their clothing.
Since saloons became the target of Prohibition enforcers, Americans frequented underground drinking facilities known as speakeasies. In there is believed to have beenspeakeasies in New York City alone.
Like many Americans during the twenties, F. Scott Fitzgerald was a heavy drinker and partier.Characteristics of Hemingway’s Works Ernest Hemingway, who was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in and the Nobel Prize of Literature in , occupies an outstanding position in the American literature.
He is regarded as one of the most influential writers of the twentieth century. Ernest Hemingway found his passion for writing in the upscale Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, where he was born. In high school, he wrote for the school's newspaper and yearbook.
Modernism Modernism was the most influential literary movement in England and America during the first half of the twentieth century.
It encompassed such works as The Waste Land (), by T. S. Everybody Behaves Badly: The True Story of Hemingway’s Masterpiece The Sun Also Rises is a fascinating biography by Lesley M.
M. Blume, though it is more the biography of Ernest Hemingway’s book than merely a biography of Hemingway/5(). - The Depiction of Nature in Ernest Hemingway's Unfinished Story, The Last Good Country Ecological criticism in the s has declared many works, including Ernest Hemingway's novels like The Old Man and the Sea, and many of his nonfiction works and short stories as nature-oriented masterpieces.
Introduction: New Criticisms on the Works of Ernest J. Gaines Lillie Anne Brown (bio) Explicit in the canon of Ernest J. Gaines's work is a delicate intertwining of history with universal themes of personal integrity, human dignity, and self-respect.