Among the migrants most vulnerable to such harms are refugees, asylum seekers, and unaccompanied alien minors. Refugees receive permission to immigrate to the United States while they are still abroad. Pursuant to the U. Asylum seekers can submit a request for asylum either affirmatively or defensively.
But those who are food-insecure or low-income also face unique challenges in adopting and maintaining healthful behaviors, as described below. Limited resources and lack of access to healthy, affordable foods. Instead, residents — especially those without reliable transportation — may be limited to shopping at small neighborhood convenience and corner stores, where fresh produce and low-fat items Vulnerable populations victims of violence limited, if available at all.
Comprehensive literature reviews examining neighborhood disparities in food access find that neighborhood residents with better access to supermarkets and limited access to convenience stores tend to have healthier diets and reduced risk for obesity Larson et al. Households with fewer resources e.
Food choices and purchases may be constrained by Vulnerable populations victims of violence on how much can be carried when walking or using public transit e. Transportation costs also cut into the already limited resources of low-income households, and these costs plus travel time can be substantial Rose et al.
When available, healthy food may be more expensive in terms of the monetary cost as well as for perishable items the potential for waste, whereas refined grains, added sugars, and fats are generally inexpensive, palatable, and readily available in low-income communities Aggarwal et al.
Households with limited resources to buy enough food often try to stretch their food budgets by purchasing cheap, energy-dense foods that are filling — that is, they try to maximize their calories per dollar in order to stave off hunger DiSantis et al.
When available, healthy food — especially fresh produce — is often of poorer quality in lower income neighborhoods, which diminishes the appeal of these items to buyers Andreyeva et al.
Low-income communities have greater availability of fast food restaurants, especially near schools Fleischhacker et al. These restaurants serve many energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods at relatively low prices. Fast food consumption is associated with a diet high in calories and low in nutrients, and frequent consumption may lead to weight gain Larson et al.
Cycles of Food Deprivation and Overeating Those who are eating less or skipping meals to stretch food budgets may overeat when food does become available, resulting in chronic ups and downs in food intake that can contribute to weight gain Bruening et al.
Unfortunately, overconsumption is even easier given the availability of cheap, energy-dense foods in low-income communities Drewnowski, ; Hilmers et al.
Such a coping mechanism puts them at risk for obesity — and research shows that parental obesity, especially maternal obesity, is in turn a strong predictor of childhood obesity Dev et al. High Levels of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Members of low-income families, including children, may face high levels of stress and poor mental health e.
A number of recent studies find associations between food insecurity and stress, depression, psychological distress, and other mental disorders Laraia et al. Research has linked stress and poor mental health to obesity in children and adults, including for adults stress from job-related demands and difficulty paying bills Block et al.
In addition, a number of studies find associations between maternal stress or depression and child obesity Gross et al. Emerging evidence also suggests that maternal stress in combination with food insecurity may negatively impact child weight status Lohman et al.
There also is growing evidence that low-income mothers struggling with depression or food insecurity utilize obesogenic child feeding practices and unfavorable parenting practices that could influence child weight status Bronte-Tinkew et al.
Fewer Opportunities for Physical Activity Lower income neighborhoods have fewer physical activity resources than higher income neighborhoods, including fewer parks, green spaces, and recreational facilities, making it difficult to lead a physically active lifestyle Mowen, Research shows that limited access to such resources is a risk factor for obesity Gordon-Larsen et al.
There is emerging evidence that food insecurity is associated with less physical activity and greater perceived barriers to physical activity e.
This is not surprising, given that many environmental barriers to physical activity exist in low-income communities. When available, physical activity resources may not be attractive places to play or be physically active because low-income neighborhoods often have fewer natural features e.
Crime, traffic, and unsafe playground equipment are common barriers to physical activity in low-income communities Neckerman et al. Because of these and other safety concerns, children and adults alike are more likely to stay indoors and engage in sedentary activities, such as watching television or playing video games.
Not surprisingly, those living in unsafe neighborhoods are at greater risk for obesity Duncan et al. Low-income children are less likely to participate in organized sports C. Students in low-income schools spend less time being active during physical education classes and are less likely to have recess, both of which are of particular concern given the already limited opportunities for physical activity in their communities Barros et al.
Greater Exposure to Marketing of Obesity-Promoting Products Low-income youth and adults are exposed to disproportionately more marketing and advertising for obesity-promoting products that encourage the consumption of unhealthful foods and discourage physical activity e.
Such advertising has a particularly strong influence on the preferences, diets, and purchases of children, who are the targets of many marketing efforts Institute of Medicine, ; Institute of Medicine, This results in lack of screening for food insecurity and referrals for food assistance, as well as lack of diagnosis and treatment of emerging chronic health problems like obesity.Migration and Refugee Services/Office of Migration Policy and Public Affairs.
The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. January Protection of Vulnerable Migrant Populations. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Victim Witness Assistance Program (DEA-VWAP) was implemented as a result of victims' rights laws.
These laws provide for fair and just treatment of crime victims, immediate emergency treatment, and referrals to appropriate child/adult service agencies. Educating Lawmakers and the Courts The LC has taken an active role in educating the public, judicial officers and the media about issues related to child abuse and interpersonal violence.
Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the twenty-fourth day of January, two thousand. An Act. To combat trafficking in persons, especially into the sex trade, slavery, and involuntary servitude, to reauthorize certain Federal programs to prevent violence against women, and for other purposes.
Resolving ethical challenges when researching with minority and vulnerable populations: LGBTIQ victims of violence, harassment and bullying. OVC's Training and Technical Assistance Center provides training to support professional development, enhance services to the community, and expand outreach to underserved victims of crime.